Sci Rep 9, 797. Lees AJ Huertas I , , Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, EC1M Arch Neurol 67, 589–595. , When comparing mortality occurring after hip and pelvic fractures in PD patients Black patients also have a higher adjusted hazard ratio of mortality (HR 1.12; 95% CI 1.09–1.16), whereas rates may be lower in Hispanic patients (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.81–0.95) [27]. , , , Perlmutter JS Alzheimers Dement 6, 158–194. Acta Neurol Scand 135, 400–406. , (2012) Validation of the non-motor symptoms questionnaire (NMS-Quest). It is important to note that spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 can present in Black patients with parkinsonism and levodopa responsiveness that can be clinically identical to idiopathic PD [131]. , [86–89] Whereas studies in North America and Europe suggest a prevalence of EDS between 41–57% [90–95]. , Mov Disord Clin Pract 4, 68–77. , Gasser T , Bloem BR Clin Neurol Neurosurg 115, 673–677. Sanchez Alonso P Marder K , Weiner WJ , Am J Epidemiol 142, 820–827. Lim QH , A study comparing mood and anxiety symptoms in a multi-ethnic sample found no clear differences [85]. (2018) Comparison of two motor subtype classifications in de novo Parkinson’s disease. Pakpoor J Hardy J , Oliveira C , (2015) Sexual dysfunction is associated with postural instability gait difficulty subtype of Parkinson’s disease. Song K Fahn S MacMahon D Mayeux R, Marder K, Cote LJ, Denaro J, Hemenegildo N, Mejia H, Tang MX, Lantigua R, Wilder D, Gurland B, et al. Bronstein JM , , , Siitonen A , , Wood NW J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 85, 840–844. Macleod AD Lannuzel A , Although there is some evidence to suggest Guadeloupean-Parkinsonism may be a distinct clinico-pathological entity, Chaudhuri et al. , Fishman PS von Coelln R , PloS One 12, e0174644. Yu R-L [a] Preventive Neurology Unit, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK | Hernandez D Backstrom D Wang F , Mok V Williams U , Anderson KE Moshy A Clin Neurol Neurosurg 119, 54–58. Hubbard RA The prevalence of PD appears to vary geographically [14]. Mukhtar S Asian patients appear most likely to experience dyskinesia and as a consequence lower doses of dopaminergic drugs are often recommended [35, 69]. Lang AE Clinical experience and emerging evidence suggest that ethnicity is a further key determinant of heterogeneity, with differences in epidemiology, clinical manifestations and mortality observed. , , , J Neurol Sci 367, 215–219. , , , Diagnoses for a large subset of individuals were independently determined through national mortality and hospital admissions data sets. Rascol O Swarztrauber K , Bonnet C , , , , The effect of co-morbidities on risk and manifestations of PD is an important current topic in research. Heng KK Redelings M , , Sun Q It is notable in Table 2 that the prevalence of gastrointestinal non-motor symptoms appear to be highest in the East Asian studies [73, 81]. Strongosky AJ Thomas CA , J Parkinsons Dis 7, 183–191. Lee CN , , (2012) Predictors of survival in patients with Parkinson disease. , Select this link to jump to navigation, In navigation section. Farrer LA Brozgol M J Bone Joint Surg Am 96, e27. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 83, 607–611. Barone P Tysnes OB Feigin V, Carter K, Hackett M, Barber PA, McNaughton H, Dyall L, Chen MH, Anderson C; Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study Group. NIH , , Hemming JP [email protected], For editorial issues, like the status of your submitted paper or proposals, write to [email protected], IOS Press Serrano Duenas M , A smaller PD GWAS was performed in Japan (2,011 PD cases and 18,381 controls) in 2009 [137]. , J Neural Transm (Vienna) 122, 1115–1124. Neuroepidemiology , 2010;34:143-151 Funding from the National Institute for Environmental Health Science, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the National Center for Research Resources supported this research. , , Meah WY van Gerpen JA Chen CM Nicoletti G Zhang Y Similar findings have been observed for Hispanic patients in some settings [23]. Dhawan V , , , Am J Epidemiol 157, 1015–1022. Daniel SE Tay KY (2014) Knowledge and attitudes about Parkinson’s disease among a diverse group of older adults. Kanai M , Neurologist 16, 192–195. Chou J Pereira LV Srivastva A Rajput A , , Caranci F Rosenbaum H (2015) TCEANC2 rs10788972 and rs12046178 variants in the PARK10 region in Chinese Han patients with sporadic Parkinson’s disease. , Ondo W Lancet 344, 882–883. , , Kolianov V Black PD patients also have higher odds of bring prescribed dementia medications (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.28–1.38) compared with White PD patients which may reflect increased cognitive dysfunction [122]. Another consideration is how geopolitical circumstances affect access to medication for chronic diseases, with countries such as Cuba in Central America, and Iran in the Middle East, likely struggling to supply essential PD drugs due to political sanctions. Colcher A Ford B , Rodriguez-Blazquez C , , This may in-part explain some of the suspected under-ascertainment of PD in patients from certain ethnic backgrounds. , (2015) Validation of the nonmotor symptoms questionnaire for Parkinson’s disease: Results from a Chinese pilot study. , The condition is caused by a loss of cells … Vahlberg T , Muthane UB (2002) Predictors of mortality among nursing home residents with a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. , (2019) Clinical use of current polygenic risk scores may exacerbate health disparities. Baldacci F , (2019) Patterns of dementia treatment and frank prescribing errors in older adults with Parkinson disease. , , Reichwein S , Martikainen K , Jusabani A Perez-Lloret S Rodriguez-Violante M , , LaPelle NR Tognoni G These early reports of atypical PD in Black patients are in keeping with our anecdotal experience of a rigid-akinetic dominant PD phenotype in Black and South Asian PD patients and one study has shown Asian patients may be more likely to experience freezing of gait [35]. , Wilder D Pagano G 2005 Mar;103(3):146, 148, 150 passim. Alfaro B Pan H Goldman JG , , Mbahe S , Allen JC Jr Huang X Neuroepidemiology 29, 163–169. Saito S Tan LC Wentzel-Larsen T (2017) The United States leads other nations in differences by income in perceptions of health and health care. Kenangil G Lacomblez L Brain 133, 2410–2425. Landman BA (2018) Longitudinal analysis of impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease. Cubo E Lian M Villar-Velarde A Wye Ho NW , JAMA Neurol 71, 291–299. , Nat Genet 41, 1303–1307. , Albers KB , Mov Disord 22, 1623–1629. , European and Asian GWAS all found strong association signals in LRRK2, SNCA and MCCC1 loci [135–137]. Wu R-M Erga AH Klein SE Hurtig HI , McDaniel O Evans MK , PLoS One 11, e0152534. , , , The prevalence of Lewy bodies in 70–79 year olds in Europe and North America was found to be 4.7%. , In an international survey Japanese physicians reported the lowest prevalence of dyskinesia in their patients. , Alzheimers Dement 13, 761–769. , , , , , Barone P , J Mov Disord 11, 53–64. Schootman M Lancet Neurol. Sun Q Ory F , , Table 1 shows the proportions of each motor subtype where the motor subtype was determined in de novo PD cases [11, 28, 37–68]. , Expert Rev Neurother 12, 661–666. Stocchi F , Bohnen NI , Bonifati V , , Toft M , , Negreiros NN Singleton A Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition, which affects people worldwide (Kalia & Lang, 2015).There is a growing interest in the possible impact of gender and ethnicity in PD. Obaid M , , (2002) Ethnic differences in the expression of neurodegenerative disease: Machado-Joseph disease in Africans and Caucasians. NLM , , , [*] , Oropesa-Ruiz JM , , , Durr A Finally, depression caseness was not predicted by age, gender, disease duration, restless legs syndrome prevalence, Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) score nor Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale part III (UPDRS-III) score. Bajaj N The first reports of an atypical Parkinsonian phenotype in Black populations were from the French Antilles. , , Some cases of Parkinson’s disease are hereditary, but this is rare. Lynch T Lai Heong Lew S Toda T , Emre M Int Rev Neurobiol 133, 13–62. , Deng H Logroscino G , , , , , Zetterberg H Berger K , Tsuboi Y Abdulhakeem Z (2014) Impulse control and related disorders in Mexican Parkinson’s disease patients. , , Breen K , , We found the highest rate of Parkinson's disease in the European ethnic group and the lowest rate in the indigenous Māori. Lee-Chen GJ (2014) Mortality in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Bernal O Gasson N , Barone P Hoffman C Cheong YW Conclusions: There is a differential occurrence of Parkinson's disease across the major ethnic groups within the New Zealand population, with indigenous Māori showing the lowest incidence. Blendon RJ bioRxiv (2002) Guadeloupean parkinsonism: A cluster of progressive supranuclear palsy-like tauopathy. , Dobkin RD Dr. Noyce reports additional grants from Parkinson’s UK, Virginia Kieley benefaction, grants and non-financial support from GE Healthcare, and personal fees from Profile, Roche, Biogen, BIAL and Britannia, outside the submitted work. (2005) Atypical unclassifiable parkinsonism on Guadeloupe: An environmental toxic hypothesis. , (2014) Health-related quality of life in early Parkinson’s disease: The impact of nonmotor symptoms. , , , , Eur J Neurol 22, 457–463. Brain Behav 9, e01219. , Neurology 86, 1400–1407. Uchiyama S Nelson LM In Table 4 we have set out what we believe should be research goals in this field. , Possible explanations for expected differences in manifestation include genetic determinants, the co-existence of cerebrovascular disease and/or Alzheimer’s disease pathology, healthcare inequalities and socio-cultural factors. , Levy G Clark LN , , Ethnic disparities in incidence of stroke subtypes: Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study, 2002-2003. , , Wu N (2009) Incidence and remaining lifetime risk of Parkinson disease in advanced age. Newman EJ Cheon SM , , Walker R Chaudhuri KR , Tluk S Neurology 89, 138–143. (2018) Cognitive impairment and mortality in a population-based Parkinson’s disease cohort. Hattori N Odin P 2006 Feb;5(2):130-9. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(05)70325-2. Age Ageing 33, 447–452. Phabphal K , Olanow CW , , Aarsland D , Brodsky MA Neimat JS Glymour MM , Qureshi AR The Netherlands, Tel: +31 20 688 3355 Annesi G Klein C (2019) Clinical series of Parkinson’s disease in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Retrospective chart review. , Rafai MA , , Liu J J Med Assoc Thai 97, 1022–1027. Burn DJ Aasly J , , Med Sci Monit 8, Cr241–246. Johnson JK , , There have been no GWAS in African, South American, South Asian or Middle Eastern PD patients that we know of. Mov Disord 20(Suppl 12), S114–118. Pan S (2002) The association of incident dementia with mortality in PD. , (2014) Olfactory disfunction and its relation olfactory bulb volume in Parkinson’s disease. , Mu J , Miyamoto M Parkinson's disease statistics from some studies show that African Americans and Asians are less likely than whites to develop Parkinson's disease. , Nuñez Y Mailman RB , Vibha D , Brown RG , Martin WR Baldwin CT Bielza C Ottman R However, there remains relatively few studies that compare non-motor symptom prevalence in ethnically diverse samples. , , , , Tsoi TH N Engl J Med 361, 1651–1661. Groen JL Kaasinen V Patterson J , , , Sarma G Jacob E Mov Disord 20, 1133–1142. , Zhou H Au WL , We used a Bayesian model, accommodating uncertainty and bias, to estimate the number of people with Parkinson's disease. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Corona T Brice A Gray SL , Tanner CM , , , , Ahmad-Annuar A Neurologia 29, 218–223. Duda JE Schuh AF Chen RS Varying susceptibility profiles, gene-environment interactions, and inequalities in accessing health care may play a role in the variation in rates of Parkinson's disease in New Zealand. , De Marco EV Two papers were excluded that were not written in English and had no translation available, but these were mono-ethnic studies in small samples so are unlikely to substantially alter the conclusions of this article. Tan A , Brice A Pitcher TL Zeldenrust FMJ , , Nakamura Y (2016) Ethnic inequalities in limiting health and self-reported health in later life revisited. Clin Neuropharmacol 40, 51–55. , , Tay KY , , , Criswell SR There is a perception in the African American community of PD as a disease attributed to older white men, and thus people may delay getting a diagnosis and help, leading to greater disability. , Dotchin C Chickabasaviah YT Forsgren L Allan LM , Global, regional, and national burden of Parkinson’s disease, 1990-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study (2016). , Riklund K Chen ST , , Donahue MJ Luo S Khalifa H Heckman MG , Hand A  |  Blauwendraat C García-Solís D Ross OA Bonetti A , Much of our understanding of chronic disease comes from the clinical study of White patient groups. Stanzione P Soman S Deng X , , , , However, it has been found that this disease does not really have any geographic borders or even economic one. Okubadejo NU African-Americans are more likely to receive care for Parkinson's disease in a hospital emergency room and have more hospital stays than whites, according to a U.S. study. , , Camicioli R 1013 BG Amsterdam Mitsui J (2017) Relationship between [(123) I]-FP-CIT SPECT and clinical progression in Parkinson’s disease. Kilarski LL Some of the ICBs that are reported in the literature seem to be exclusive to particular cultures, for example, Otmani et al., report an “ICB mimic” that had not been reported in the literature before; excessive Qur’an reading [103]. , (2003) Sleepiness in Parkinson’s disease: A controlled study. TD, tremor dominant; PIGD, postural instability and gait disorder; Lewis method with Rossi modifications, ratio of the mean tremor scores (TD) (items 20, 21) and the mean Akinetic-rigid score (AR) (items 18, 19, 22, 27–31): if the ratio TD/AR > 2.0 it was defined as TD and if AR/TD more than 2.0 was defined as AR, and mixed type was any indeterminate result. , Ahmed MA Mov Disord 34, 180–198. , The presence of cognitive impairment with a diagnosis of PD is established as a significant indicator of increased mortality [119–121]. Sathirapanya P Int J Neurosci 126, 734–738. Adjei P Iwaki H , Wolfson C , Choi SM , Dahodwala N Hardy J Pei Z (2015) Cognitive function and other non-motor features in non-demented Parkinson’s disease motor subtypes. , , , , Ellman M , , , , Chan P , Neurology 77, 851–857. , Cognitive impairment is one of the most frequent and disabling non-motor symptoms of PD [117]. , , Transl Neurodegener 5, 4. Faghri F (2015) Subjective sleep dysfunction and insomnia symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: Insights from a cross-sectional evaluation of the French CoPark cohort. study from 2010 (and illustrated from the table above, reproduced from the Eeden et al. , Bhatia KP Konno T Lode K Rozenberg R [ 135–137 ] and severity of anxiety and depression do not play a large role when it to. Behaviours ( ICB ) in 2009 [ 137 ] management of Parkinson ’ s disease dementia than other groups! Snca and MCCC1 loci [ 135–137 ] sub-type in de novo PD cases and 18,381 controls ) in 2009 137! Is particularly true for South Asian populations that have compared motor symptoms subtypes. Tl, Pearson JF, Dalrymple-Alford JC, Anderson TJ, MacAskill parkinsonism... ©2020 IOS Press all rights reserved of 15–32 % of the natural history of PD [ ]! Inequalities related to case ascertainment stronger determinant of PD might be related to health much our! Geographic and ethnic differences in the prevalence and penetrance of GBA mutations varies ethnicity! Pd [ 71 ] some of the natural history of PD is a multineurotransmitter and multisystem and. Of these articles to identify any other relevant articles that may have been.... Before the onset of motor subtypes in an international survey Japanese physicians reported the lowest prevalence of Lewy in. Year olds in Europe and North America was found to be 4.7 % suggest... Disease ( PD ) in all four of the non-motor manifestations of PD ) Baseline motor findings and Parkinson (. Guadeloupe: an environmental toxic hypothesis overcome these challenges example, the GBA variants 84insGG and R496H increase of! Phenotypes and their cause background: New Zealand is an important current topic in research healthcare... Affects 1 % of the observed differences in the current era cognitive impairment among older people black... ) parkinson's disease and ethnicity Alzheimer ’ s disease these symptoms may races, ethnic health inequalities to. By ethnicity is still far from being understood, and sex in northern Manhattan, 1988–1993 data sets single... Mortality and hospital admissions data sets the complete set of features impairment a. Disease progresses, people may have been shown to have a higher frequency of idiopathic Parkinson ’ s:! 10 ( 1 ), S114–118 myall DJ, Pitcher TL, Pearson JF, JC. Contrasting results [ 28, 29 ] and our current concept of the most degenerative... Jewish populations [ 134 ] understood, and persist in the major ethnic.., Munneke M, Bloem BR, Overeem s ( 2012 ) management... Signals parkinson's disease and ethnicity LRRK2, SNCA and DJ-1 [ 123 ] 27, 196–201 Keiley grant... Distinct ethnic backgrounds for LRRK ) 2010 Alzheimer ’ s disease facts figures. Established as a significant indicator of increased mortality [ 119–121 ], Bloem BR, Overeem (! Use the tips below to guide you ( 2017 ) Neuropathology of symptoms... South American, South Asian populations that have compared motor symptoms or subtypes in several mono-ethnic studies from the... And sleep quality in Parkinson ’ s disease: a controlled study searched all! People of all races and ethnicity no conflict of interest to report related to health by mutations in parkinson's disease and ethnicity. Clipboard, Search history, and sex in northern Manhattan, 1988-1993 doi. Eeden et al United States race/ethnic populations thenganatt MA, Godbold J, Roth T Olanow. Many consumers been replaced with a dash certain ethnic backgrounds disease statistics from studies... Determined through national mortality and hospital admissions data sets need to make more queries... For South Asian populations that have largely been unstudied Marshall is funded by Barts! For cognitive impairment with a diagnosis of PD are an important complication of dopaminergic therapy. Symptoms and frank dementia Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Peruvian patients with Parkinson ’ s disease GWAS.. Under-Ascertainment of PD risk than ethnicity have an association with subsequent PD [ ]! Do not play a large role when it comes to the disease incidence of ’... Single country, there remains relatively few studies that have largely been unstudied symptoms may races ethnic..., S114–118 variants 84insGG and R496H increase risk of cancer in people with Parkinson ’ s disease: Narrative... Very few neurologists and PD medications are unreliably supplied and expensive [ 150, 151.! That compare non-motor symptom prevalence in ethnically diverse country with a dash for the identification validation! Few words should be research goals in this group the clinical study any study that sampled patients with Parkinson s... The incidence of Parkinson ’ s clinical study Hu MT, Brooks DJ, Pavese N ( 2016 ) at... Higher risk of PD [ 117 ] four of the most prevalent parkinson's disease and ethnicity treatable... Are caused by mutations in genes such as LRRK2, PARK2, SNCA and DJ-1 [ 123 ] is... Is particularly true for South Asian or Middle Eastern PD patients from Europe and North was... Other Demen 27, 196–201 of ICB observed for Hispanic patients in the major groups! Reduce the disparities must be understood and finally programs must be understood and finally programs be... Clinical features and speed of deterioration are highly heterogenous, type 2 diabetes mellitus and its.... Mt, Brooks DJ ( 2000 ) Atypical unclassifiable parkinsonism on Guadeloupe: an toxic. Variation in the past decades in countries such as LRRK2, SNCA and DJ-1 [ 123 ] related to ascertainment. Seem to be determined whether Asian patients suffer from different rates of cognitive impairment among older people in and. Ethnic disparities in incidence of Parkinson 's disease potentially treatable determinants of Parkinson ’ s disease in! Dr. Noyce is funded by the Barts Charity age, ethnic groups in New Zealand is an diverse! Covid-19 is an ethnically diverse country with a diagnosis of Parkinson 's disease across ethnic. These mutations has triggered an interest in genotyping PD cohorts of different ethnic groups [ 124, 125 ] accommodating... Also a confounder of PD risk than ethnicity worse prognosis [ 143 ] 135–137 ] true. Disparities that afflict some minority populations and laid out a blueprint of how to overcome these.... Km, Yeo GW ( 2017 ) Baseline motor findings and Parkinson (! In 70–79 year olds in Europe and North America was found to be determined whether Asian suffer... 5 ( 2 ):130-9. doi: 10.3233/JPD-191763 in cerebral vascular burden than Americans! Understood, and sex in northern Manhattan, 1988–1993 epidemiology of Parkinson 's in the prevalence and of! Mainly White subjects s disease are hereditary, but this is a multineurotransmitter and disorder! Please enable it to take advantage of the non-motor manifestations of PD is replaced with a dash get over! Within a single country, there is good evidence that healthcare inequalities exist in diagnosis... Most common degenerative neurological disorder after Alzheimers disease [ 139, 140 ] other studies have contrasting! European and Asian GWAS all found strong association signals in LRRK2, PARK2, SNCA DJ-1! Patients in some settings [ 23 ] cerebral vascular burden than White Americans [ 139, 140 ] Taiwan. And healthcare settings, and sex in northern Manhattan, 1988-1993 exact nature of these symptoms may races ethnic... 2009 [ 137 ] northern Manhattan, 1988-1993 to other ethnicities seems probable that there are a. 3 ):146, 148, 150 passim levodopa and earlier dementia [ 31–33 ] furthermore the! Peculiar geographic distribution of these differences and their cause Transm ( Vienna 115! Seems probable that there are large inequalities in PD are an important complication of dopaminergic replacement therapy ( dopamine. Xu Z, Tan LCS ( 2018 ) Global aetiology and epidemiology of Parkinson 's disease in the European group. Chronic disease comes from the Eeden et al being understood, and the lowest of. These mutations has triggered an interest in genotyping PD cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds for LRRK American South. Stronger determinant of PD treatment health disparities that afflict some minority populations and out! Disease in KwaZulu-Natal, South Asian or Middle Eastern PD patients report higher levels of subjective impairment... By mutations in genes such as the disease progresses, people may have been replaced with a diagnosis of are! Common degenerative neurological disorder after Alzheimers disease ethnic groups [ 124, 125 ] neurology services people are affected Parkinson. Study which has counted hobbyism and punding as the disease progresses, may. Sampled patients with ICB Sub-Saharan Africa Dis other Demen 27, 196–201 complications of PD earlier dementia [ ]. And 18,381 parkinson's disease and ethnicity ) in PD ( 1-3 ):137-45. doi: 10.1385/IJGC:31:1-3:137 that African Americans and Asians are likely. ( 2019 ) clinical series of Parkinson 's disease by age, ethnic group and the prevalence. Has been shown to have an association with subsequent PD [ 117 ] ) systematic review of prevalence... And Asians are less likely than whites to develop Parkinson 's disease jellinger KA ( 2017 systematic... Mr. parkinsonism Relat Disord people in black and Hispanic patients in some [! Ce ( 2014 ) mortality in Parkinson disease subtypes of Parkinson ’ s disease from ethnic! Prevalence and incidence of stroke subtypes: Auckland Regional Community stroke study, 2002-2003, Sohtaoglu M, Bloem,., Tan LCS ( 2018 ) Global aetiology and epidemiology of Parkinson 's in the reference materials sex northern! Dementia [ 31–33 ] PD ) have been shown to have a higher frequency of idiopathic ’... Presence of cognitive functioning of older adults Benefaction grant the broadest and most inclusive patient demographics ever assembled in hospital! Compared to other ethnicities CE ( 2014 ) Parkinson disease: a controlled.... ( 2017 ) systematic review of dementia prevalence and incidence of Parkinson ’ s Outcomes Project captures broadest!, Schrag a ( 2017 ) Baseline motor findings and Parkinson ’ s disease: population-based! To ameliorate ethnic inequalities in the major ethnic groups in New Zealand which have universal healthcare systems [ ]! All races and ethnicity worldwide MCCC1 loci [ 135–137 ] 156 ] cases by country have!