The rivers face problems such as sand mining and pollution. Thekkady is a paradise covered in dense woods and wild plants and that’s exactly what makes it one of Kerala’s best tourist forest sites.  However, the Portuguese suffered setbacks from attacks by Zamorin forces in Malabar region; especially from naval attacks under the leadership of Kozhikode admirals known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), Kerala is the twenty-first largest Indian state by area. KERALA is a state in India. People come together from different nations, cultures, and states to add beauty to the place. Late Malayalam actor Prem Nazir holds the world record for having acted as the protagonist of over 720 movies.  Along with the Ay kingdom in the south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north, the Cheras formed the ruling kingdoms of Kerala in the early years of the Common Era (CE).  Other known festivals are Makaravilakku, Chinakkathoor Pooram, Attukal Pongala and Nenmara Vallangi Vela Other than these, festivals locally known as utsavams are conducted by many temples mostly on annual basis.  Software giants like Infosys, Oracle, Tata Consultancy Services, Capgemini, HCL, UST Global, NeST and Suntec have offices in the state. Najith Kumar, K.K. , After independence, the state was managed as a democratic socialist welfare economy.  Kerala has the largest population of Christians in India.  Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar and Kerala Varma Valiakoi Thampuran are noted for their contribution to Malayalam prose.  The Western Ghats rise on average to 1,500 metres (4,900 feet) above sea level, while the highest peaks reach around 2,500 metres (8,200 feet).  These changes stem largely from efforts begun in the late 19th century by the kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore to boost social welfare. How Kerala got the name?  Owing to the former matrilineal system, women in Kerala enjoy a high social status. God's own country kerala.  Mappila was an honorific title that had been assigned to respected visitors from abroad; Israelite (Jewish), Syrian Christian, and Muslim immigration account for later names of the respective communities: Juda Mappilas, Nasrani Mappilas and Muslim Mappilas.  According to the 2011 census, Kerala has a 93.91% literacy, compared to the national literacy rate of 74.04%.  Finally, the Kulasekhara dynasty was subjugated in 1102 by the combined attack of Later Pandyas and Later Cholas. from $40. One folk etymology derives Kerala from the Malayalam word kera 'coconut tree' and alam 'land'; thus, 'land of coconuts', which is a nickname for the state used by locals due to the abundance of coconut trees. E., "Mappila" in "The Encyclopedia of Islam". Malabar is reminiscent of the word Malanad which means the land of hills.  There were major revolts in Kerala during the independence movement in the 20th century; most notable among them is the 1921 Malabar Rebellion and the social struggles in Travancore. In the forests, sonokeling, Dalbergia latifolia, anjili, mullumurikku, Erythrina, and Cassia number among the more than 1,000 species of trees in Kerala.  In January 2016, Kerala became the first Indian state to achieve 100% primary education through its Athulyam literacy programme. Kerala is the only state to have provided banking facilities and hospitals in its remotest locations, thus increasing its overall development. Inland are the Western Ghats, mountains whose slopes support tea, coffee and spice plantations as well as wildlife. , In 1766, Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore invaded northern Kerala. It is one of the country's oldest state-run public bus transport services. , According to the first economic census, conducted in 1977, 99.7% of the villages in Kerala had a primary school within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi), 98.6% had a middle school within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) and 96.7% had a high school or higher secondary school within 5 kilometres (3.1 mi).  Peaceful backwaters, ideal locations for a photo postcard, the loom of nature spinning its finest magic, the warm smiles, and the unrivaled hospitality of its citizens make Kerala the country’s most sought after destination. Government Brennen College, Thalassery, founded by philanthropist Edward Brennen in 1862, is one of the oldest educational institutions in India. The state has a coast of 590 km (370 mi) and the width of the state varies between 11 and 121 kilometres (7 and 75 mi).  Later, writers like O. V. Vijayan, Kamaladas, M. Mukundan, Arundhati Roy, Vaikom Muhammed Basheer, have gained international recognition.  In foreign-trade circles the region was known as Male or Malabar. 9 . He makes note of the 20 or 30 mosques built to cater to the religious needs of the Muslims, the unique system of calculation by the merchants using their fingers and toes (followed to this day), and the matrilineal system of succession. The majority of public schools are affiliated with the SCERT Kerala. Chithra Thirunnal decided to set up a public road transportation system in 1937. Hotels and resorts in Kumarakom have excellent accommodation options.  Some social struggles against caste inequalities also erupted in the early decades of 20th century, leading to the 1936 Temple Entry Proclamation that opened Hindu temples in Travancore to all castes. It is, for sure, a peaceful pursuit that can be part of a memorable romantic getaway. He describes Kozhikode as "one of the great ports of the district of Malabar" where "merchants of all parts of the world are found". One hundred and forty-foot-long canoe-like boats, each carrying 110 rowers get together to sail along the inland waterways. Alleppey is one of the most popular tourist places to visit in Kerala and is commonly known as the âVenice of the Eastâ.  The Arab writers had called this place Malibar, Manibar, Mulibar, and Munibar. Kerala's taluks are further sub-divided into 1,674 revenue villages.  The social system became fractured with divisions on caste lines. Cultural activities like Kathakali, the classical dance style and martial art kalarippayattu are some of the other major tourist attractions in Kerala. Kerala produced several saints and movements. , Ancient Christian tradition says that Christianity reached the shores of Kerala in 52 CE with the arrival of Thomas the Apostle, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ.  According to William Logan, the word Malabar comes from a combination of the Malayalam word Mala (hill) and the Persian/Arabic word Barr (country/continent).  The chain's forests are considered to be older than the Himalaya mountains.  In 2015, NRI deposits in Kerala have soared to over ₹1 trillion (US$14 billion), amounting to one-sixth of all the money deposited in NRI accounts, which comes to about ₹7 trillion (US$98 billion). And both boat building and the celebration event are a special part of a culture that unites society with water. Cricketers, like Tinu Yohannan, Abey Kuruvilla, Sreesanth, Sanju Samson and Basil Thampi found places in the national cricket team. In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew and spices are important.  It is the first metro system in India to use a communication-based train control (CBTC) system for signalling and telecommunication. There are 15,892 schools under the SCERT, of which 5,986 are government schools, 8,183 are aided schools, and the rest are either un-aided or technical schools.  Arabs also had trade links with Kerala, starting before the 4th century BCE, as Herodotus (484–413 BCE) noted that goods brought by Arabs from Kerala were sold to the Israelis [Hebrew (Jews)] at Eden.  According to a survey by economics research firm Indicus Analytics in 2007, Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kozhikode, Thrissur, Kochi are among the "best cities in India to live"; the survey used parameters such as health, education, environment, safety, public facilities and entertainment to rank the cities..  Outbreaks of water-borne diseases such as diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis, and typhoid among the more than 50% of people who rely on 3 million water wells is an issue worsened by the lack of sewers.  Notable has been the occurrence of Cheraman Perumal Tajuddin, the Hindu King that moved to Arabia to meet the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and converted to Islam. The wealth of natural beauty in the form of placid backwaters, lush greenery, picturesque hill towns, and beautiful beaches has resulted in the name ‘God’s Own Country.’ Munnar’s stunning tea plantations and Alappuzha’s serene backwaters make it into every list of what to see in Kerala. from $30. Calicut International Airport, which was opened in 1988, is the second-oldest existing airport in Kerala and the oldest in the Malabar region. , Kerala's fauna are notable for their diversity and high rates of endemism: it includes 118 species of mammals (1 endemic), 500 species of birds, 189 species of freshwater fish, 173 species of reptiles (10 of them endemic), and 151 species of amphibians (36 endemic). There is a significant Tamil population in Palakkad and Idukki districts.  The "Arabian Sea Branch" of the Southwest monsoon first hits the Western Ghats, making Kerala the first state in India to receive rain from the Southwest monsoon. , With around 120–140 rainy days per year,:80 Kerala has a wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of the southwest summer monsoon and northeast winter monsoon. To the west, 200-300 km away from its pristine coastline, are the Lakshadweep islands. George, Priyadarshan, John Abraham, Ramu Karyat, K S Sethumadhavan, A. Vincent and Shaji N Karun have made a considerable contribution to the Indian parallel cinema.  Over 95% of Keralite births are hospital delivered and the state also has the lowest Infant mortality rate in the country. The resort has beautifully furnished, A/C and varient rooms, each with pleasure.  During the southwest monsoon, a suspended mud bank develops along the shore, which in turn leads to calm ocean water, peaking the output of the fishing industry. , Many of the temples in Kerala hold festivals on specific days of the year. ", Devika, J.  Cochin International Airport is also the first Indian airport to be incorporated as a public limited company; it was funded by nearly 10,000 non-resident Indians from 30 countries.  The Indian Hockey team captain P. R. Shreejesh, ace goalkeeper hails from Kerala. The Packages are designed with the idea of providing the best of experiences in the time and budget decided by you. , There is a preference for organic products and home farming compared to synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. Instead, the term "transgender" should be used. Donec ullamcorper ante sed luctus ultricies.  Kerala's ecotourism destinations include 12 wildlife sanctuaries and two national parks: Periyar Tiger Reserve, Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Muthanga Wildlife Sanctuary, Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Eravikulam National Park, and Silent Valley National Park are the most popular among them. Since Kerala is a coastal state, seafood is widely available with plenty of tempting dishes. On seeing some answers written about Kerala here, I'm inclined to put my view on the question. In India, we see â¦ The Cheras had trading links with China, West Asia, Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire. info)) is a state on the southwestern Malabar Coast of India.  BSNL, Airtel, Vodafone Idea Limited, Jio are the major cell phone service providers.  The Western Ghats mountain chain is recognised as one of the world's eight "hottest hotspots" of biological diversity and is listed among UNESCO World Heritage Sites.  Over 10,000 festivals are celebrated in the state every year. Some occupational communities such as Kaniyar were known as native medicine men in relation to the practice of such streams of medical systems, apart from their traditional vocation. In 2013, capital expenditure rose 30% compared to the national average of 5%, owners of two-wheelers rose by 35% compared to the national rate of 15%, and the teacher-pupil ratio rose 50% from 2:100 to 4:100. :8 The state recorded 8.93% growth in enterprises from 1998 to 2005, higher than the national rate of 4.80%. Its non-tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) of the Government of Kerala reached ₹145.87 billion (US$2.0 billion) in 2020-2021.  CNN Travel listed Kerala amongst its '19 best places to visit in 2019'. "Fort Cochin in Kerala 1750–1830 The Social Condition of a Dutch Community in an Indian Milieu." 21,321 were here.  In respect of female empowerment, some negative factors such as higher suicide rate, lower share of earned income, child marriage, complaints of sexual harassment and limited freedom are reported. :15, In 2014, Kerala became the first state in India to offer free cancer treatment to the poor, via a program called Sukrutham. It is located on the south-western region of the country. He won the war against the Devas, driving them into exile. Some favorite locations include Kairali Ayurvedic Healing Village in Palakkad, Athreya Ayurvedic Center in Kottayam, Nattika Beach Ayurveda Resort in Thrissur, and Ayurvedic Yoga Villa in Kalpetta, Wayanad. The state has a second major IT hub, the Infopark centred in Kochi with "spokes"(it acts as the "hub") in Thrissur and Alleppy. , Kerala cuisine includes a wide variety of vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes prepared using fish, poultry, and meat. An insurrection at the Port of Quilon between the Arabs and the Portuguese led to the end of the Portuguese era in Quilon. Doordarshan is the state-owned television broadcaster. Every year Kerala comes alive with colorful snake boat races during the Monsoon season.  In 2006–2007, the state topped the Education Development Index (EDI) of the 21 major states in India. The production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. Construction began in 2012, with the first phase being set up at an estimated cost of ₹51.81 billion (US$730 million). However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Zamorin and led to conflicts between them.  The city of Kochi ranks first in the total number of international and domestic tourists in Kerala. , After India was partitioned in 1947 into India and Pakistan, Travancore and Kochi, part of the Union of India were merged on 1 July 1949 to form Travancore-Cochin.  As of 2016, Hindus, Muslims, Christians and others account for 41.88%, 42.55%, 15.35% and 0.22% of the total child births in the state, respectively..  These are threatened by extensive habitat destruction, including soil erosion, landslides, salinisation, and resource extraction. Malayalam, one of the classical languages in India, is Kerala's official language. This mentions a pepper emporium called Male, which clearly gave its name to Malabar ('the country of Male'). "Mappila Muslim Culture" State University of New York Press, Albany (2015); p. xi. The Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Kerala as Celobotra. "Testing concepts about print, newspapers, and politics: Kerala, India, 1800-2009.". Lunch dishes include rice and curry along with rasam, pulisherry and sambar. It was the first week of august .  The Israeli (Jewish) connection with Kerala started in 573 BCE. Elephants have been an integral part of the culture of the state. 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