The construction of the pyramids and other astonishing monuments would have been impossible without a highly developed mathematical knowledge. The field of Science, Technology, and Society Studies covers several basic themes. Learn more about the properties and types of sound in this article. If the sun sets in the west, it always rises again the next morning in the east. Despite their superstitions, Egyptian priests encouraged the development of many scientific disciplines, especially astronomy and mathematics. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Science.gov searches over 60 databases and over 2,200 scientific websites to provide users with access to more than 200 million pages of authoritative federal science information including research and development results. The oldest of these altars had the shape of a falcon and an area of 7.50 squares purusha (a purusha was a unit equivalent to the height of a man with uplifted arms, about 7.6 feet or 2.3 meters). This turned the Greeks into some of the most competent mathematicians and astronomers of antiquity and their achievements in geometry were arguably the finest. This is a useful rule of thumb and it is also a step away from the Pythagoras Theorem, which is based on stretching the 3:4:5 triangle concept to its logical limit. Geometry was developed in India as a result of strict religious rules for the construction of altars. Many of the ceremonies and sacrificial rites of Indian society were regulated by the position of the moon, the sun, and other astronomical events, which encouraged a detailed study of astronomy. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. and another is Hati, he is Hrodvitnir’s son. Unlike other parts of the world were science was strongly connected with religion, Greek scientific thought had a stronger connection with philosophy. Page 2 of 18 Science, Technology, and Society 2. All these procedures were impossible to carry out without a fine knowledge of geometry. A purely subjective, but unduly restrictive, definition of sound is also possible, as that which is perceived by the ear. Web. Inspired by the rich lessons of history, Cristian's goal is to stimulate ideas and to spark the intellectual curiosity of his audience. For example, the antecedent may be a request from a teacher, the presence of another person or student, or even a change in the environment. Despite their immense creativity, it is ironic that Chinese industrial life did not undergo any significant development between the Han dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) to the fall of the Manchu (1912 CE). The ‘smartphone addiction’ is a popular theme in media. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Tower of The Winds by Andronicus constructed in. And if we lived in an unpredictable world, where things changed in random or very complex ways, we would not be able to figure things out. It has number of clear behavioural changes in addicts’ life and some of these aspects are yet to get due research attention. This method is key in mathematics and the Greeks put such an emphasis on it that they falsely believed that deduction was the way to obtain the highest knowledge. After a period of observation and careful recordkeeping, even some of the events perceived as random and unpredictable might begin to display a regular pattern which initially was not immediately obvious. 10 Dec 2020. Theories of Aristarchusby Konstable (CC BY-SA). During the 2nd century BCE, after many centuries and generations, a mathematical treatise named The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art was completed. Eclipses are a good example. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. Thales lived in Miletus, a Greek city locate in Ionia, the central sector of Anatolia’s Aegean shore in Asia Minor, present-day Turkey. Pronoun and Antecedent Agreement Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns. CONSTRUCTIVISM. The term science comes from the Latin word scientia, meaning “knowledge”. Violatti, Cristian. SLIS Report Series, 1990. As a result, the Greek scientific spirit had a more secular approach and was able to replace the notion of supernatural explanation with the concept of a universe that is governed by laws of nature. This interval was obtained by combining cycles of 20 days with thirteen numerical coefficients (20 x 13 = 260). In North America, the Cherokee said that eclipses were caused when the moon (male) visits his wife, the sun, and the Ojibway believed the sun would be totally extinguished during an eclipse, so they used to shoot flaming arrows to keep it alight. The so-called “Arabic numbers” actually originated in India; they already appear in the Rock Edicts of the Mauryan emperor Ashoka (3rd century BCE), about 1,000 years before they are used in Arabic literature. Violatti, C. (2014, May 28). Egyptians calculated the value of the mathematical constant pi at 256/81 (3.16), and for the value of the square root of two, they used the fraction 7/5 (which they thought of as 1/5 seven times). Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. Consequences The consequences of a concept concern events or situations resulting from its use ( 7 ) , as shown in Figure 1 . The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (also known as the Ahmes Papyrus) is an ancient mathematical treatise, dating back to approximately 1650 BCE. Democritos develops an atomic theory of matter. There was also a 360 day period known as tun by the Maya, composed of cycles of 20 days and 18 months (20 x 18 = 360). Newspaper Classified Job Advertisements; Williams, J. First and foremost, STS assumes scientific and technological developments to be socially constructed phenomena. Learn how science advanced from the observation of these natural phenomena to … It was in astronomy where Babylonians showed a remarkable talent, and magic, mysticism, astrology, and divination were its main drivers. By making life easier, science has given man the chance to pursue societal concerns such as ethics, aesthetics, education, and justice; to create cultures; and to improve human conditions. Possibly the most influential achievement of Hindu science was the study of arithmetic, particularly the development of the numbers and the decimal notation that the world uses today. Science and technology studies, or science, technology and society studies (STS) is the study of how society, politics, and culture affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these, in turn, affect society, politics and culture. The flooding of the Nile, which constantly altered the border markers that separated the different portions of land, also encouraged the development of mathematics: Egyptian land surveyors had to perform measurements over and over again to restore the boundaries that had been lost. Ctesibius invents first sophisticated multi-cogged water-clock. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Some other times, the size of the altar had to be increased without changing the shape or the relative proportion of the figure. By Prof. Liwayway Memije-Cruz For the main manuscript, Science prefers to receive a single complete file that includes all figures and tables in Word’s .docx format (Word 2007, 2010, or 2008 or 2011 for a Mac) - download a copy of our Word template here. James Frazer has suggested that there is a link between magic and science, since both believe in the cause-and-effect principle. These studies have greatly improved our understanding of important phenomena, ranging from social inequality to the … Science definition, a branch of knowledge or study dealing with a body of facts or truths systematically arranged and showing the operation of general laws: the mathematical sciences. The Antecedents Affecting Employee Engagement and Organizational Performance @article{Abukhalifeh2013TheAA, title={The Antecedents Affecting Employee Engagement and Organizational Performance}, author={A. N. Abukhalifeh and Ahmad Puad Mat Som}, journal={Asian Social Science}, year={2013}, volume={9}, pages={41-46} } First-of-its-kind African trial tests common drugs to prevent severe COVID-19 By Kai Kupferschmidt Dec. 3, 2020 In biology publishing shakeup, eLife will … Intrapreneurship and its antecedents (organization and environment) were measured through scales previously used by other researchers. After developing important geometrical studies, religious practices changed in India, and the need for geometrical knowledge gradually died out as the construction of altars fell out of use. Science. (eds.) Cristian is a public speaker and independent author with a strong passion for the human past. This view does not deny the constraints imposed by nature on the physical reality of technological artifacts, but it does maintain that knowledge and underst… "Science." Like in Egypt, priests encouraged much of the development of Babylonian science. Magic thought is convinced that by performing certain spells, a specific event will take place. The Nordics made as much noise as they could to scare off the wolves, so they could rescue the victims: Skoll a wolf is called who pursues the shining god. The definition of science as research owes much of its … Unfortunately they did not know the zero, and their numeral system lacked simplicity: 27 signs were required to express 999. Acknowledgments: Sincere appreciation is expressed to the following authors whose textbooks were the sources for definitions in this glossary. A work known as the Shulba Sutras, first composed in India around 800 BCE, contains detailed explanations on how to perform all the geometrical operations required to support the religious procedures regarding the altars. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Historical Antecedents In Science And Technology Ancient Times • 500,000 BC – control of fire • 12,000 BC – domestication of animals • 8,000 BC – domestication of plants • 7,000 BC – ceramics • 4,000 BC – copper • 3,500 BC – cuneiform script, wheeled vehicle, river … Analyze the human condition in order to deeply reflect and express philosophical ramifications that are meaningful to the student as a part of society 4. The field of computational social science (CSS) has exploded in prominence over the past decade, with thousands of papers published using observational data, experimental designs, and large-scale simulations that were once unfeasible or unavailable to researchers. Sometimes other altar shapes were required (such as a wheel, a tortoise, a triangle), but the area of these new altars had to remain the same, 7.50 square purusha. Earthquakes, storms, and pestilence all appear to occur randomly, and natural explanations do not seem to be relevant. Observation was underestimated, deduction was made king, and Greek scientific knowledge was led up a blind alley in virtually every branch of science other than exact sciences (mathematics). John called his friend. The starting point of the Mayan Long Count is August 11, 3114 BCE and it ended on December 21, 2012 BCE. The Science Book: Everything You Need to Know About the World and How... Science and Cooking: Physics Meets Food, From Homemade to Haute Cuisine... Best American Science and Nature Writing 2020 (The Best American Series... Mammoth Science: The Big Ideas That Explain Our World, The Art of Doing Science and Engineering: Learning to Learn, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. He worked on them throughout the 1990s, and in 2000, he recognized that what had been reported as disparate repeat sequences actually shared a common set of features, Eclipses are a good example In North America, the Cherokee said that eclipses were caused when the moon (male) visits his wife, the sun, and the Ojibway believed the sun would be totally extinguished dur… Science influences society through its knowledge and world view. Greek tradition credits Thales of Miletus as the first Greek who, around 600 BCE, developed the idea that the world can be explained in natural terms. This work explains, using several examples, how to calculate the area of a field, the capacity of a barn, and it also deals with algebraic equations of the first degree. Gunpowder, paper, woodblock printing, the compass (known as “south-pointing needle"), are some of the many Chinese inventions. In magic, the causes are somehow unclear and they tend to be based upon spontaneous thoughts, while in science, through careful observation and reasoning, the causes are better isolated and understood. During the time of Confucius (c. 551 to c. 479 BCE), Chinese astronomers successfully calculated the occurrence of eclipses. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified May 28, 2014. In China, the priesthood never had any significant political power. In fact, this is the origin of the word geometry: “measurement of land”. That is, science and technology are inherently human, and hence value-laden, activities that are always approached and understood cognitively. Since the 1960s, scholars in theology, philosophy, history, and thesciences have studied the relationship between 1. Egyptian land surveyors were very practical minded: in order to form right angles, which was critical for establishing the borders of a field, they used a rope divided into twelve equal parts, forming a triangle with three parts on one side, four parts on the second side, and five parts on the remaining side. In other words, Egyptians knew that a triangle whose sides are in a 3:4:5 ratio is a right triangle. Information Science: A Proposed Model for Curriculum Design in Williams, J. and Carbo T. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. In ancient times, it was common for science to be merged with magic, religion, mysticism, and philosophy, since the limits of the scientific discipline were not fully understood. Therefore, supernatural explanations arose to account for such events, most of them merged with myth and legends. Science Physics Nobel goes to 3 scientists who shed light on 'Earth's place in the cosmos' The Associated Press Oct. 8, 2019 / 10:16 AM UTC / Updated Oct. 8, 2019 / 6:23 PM UTC The regular occurrence of natural events encouraged the development of some scientific disciplines. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Humankind has long observed regularities in nature, from the movements of the Sun and Moon during day and night to the seasonal migrations of animals. Geometry developed as a result of the need to measure land, while algebra was imported from India. Where the Chinese displayed an exceptional talent was at making inventions. The use of 60 as a base of a mathematical system is not a minor issue: 60 is a number that has many divisors (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30, 60), which simplifies the representation of fractions: 1/2 (30/60), 1/3 (20/60), 1/4 (15/60), 1/5 (12/60), 1/6 (10/60), and so forth. (Carl Sagan, 59), The regular occurrence of natural events encouraged the development of some scientific disciplines. There is an interesting quote from Carl Sagan about the scientific attitude: If we lived on a planet where nothing ever changed, there would be little to do. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Science and technology have had a major impact on society, and their impact is growing. Magic is based on people’s confidence that nature can be directly controlled. History of science, the development of science over time. Intihuatana Stone, Machu Picchuby Flickr User: David (CC BY-NC-ND). Second-level Digital Divide and experiences of Schools and Teachers, Human flourishing in science and technology: Technology as a Mode of Revealing, General view of organic chemistry and iupac, Historical antecedents of science and technology, No public clipboards found for this slide, Historical Antecedents of Science and Technology, College of Arts and Sciences, Baliuag University. Stephen Hawking mentions that according to the Vikings, the sun and the moon are being chased by two wolves, Skoll and Hati. In India, we find some aspects of astronomical science already in the Vedas (composed between 1500 and 1000 BCE), where the year is divided into twelve lunar months (occasionally adding an additional month to adjust the lunar with the solar year), six seasons of the year are named and related to different gods, and also the different phases of the moon are observed and personified as different deities. Hawking goes on saying that people eventually realized that the sun and the moon would emerge from the eclipse regardless of whether they made noise to rescue the victims. But we live in an in-between universe, where things change, but according to patterns, rules, or as we call them, laws of nature. Antecedent: Also known as the "setting event," the antecedent refers to the action, event, or circumstance that led up to the behavior and encompasses anything that might contribute to the behavior. DOI: 10.5539/ASS.V9N7P41 Corpus ID: 167748995. There would be no impetus for science. Books There would be nothing to figure out. The Chemical Revolution and its Chymical Antecedents in Early Science and Medicine. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 28 May 2014. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Discovery of CRISPR and its function 1993 - 2005 — Francisco Mojica, University of Alicante, Spain Francisco Mojica was the first researcher to characterize what is now called a CRISPR locus, reported in 1993. The real story behind Archimedes’ Eureka! The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history that examines how the understanding of the natural world (science) and the ability to manipulate it have changed over the millennia and centuries.This academic discipline also studies the cultural, economic, and political impacts of scientific innovation. And so it becomes possible to figure things out. Jane called her friend. The Greeks were very talented at systematically innovating upon the Egyptian and Babylonian mathematical and astronomical knowledge. Intelligent design (ID) is a pseudoscientific argument for the existence of God, presented by its proponents as "an evidence-based scientific theory about life's origins". After a period of observation and careful recordkeeping, even some of the events perceived as random and unpredictable might begin to display a regular pattern which initially was not immediately obvious. By contrast, the other antecedents were all discussed at length in the focus groups. The court astronomers were particularly interested in the sciences of astronomy and mathematics, since the calendar was a sensitive imperial matter: the life of the sky and the life on earth had to develop in harmony, and the sun and the moon regulated the different festivals. "Science." Supernatural explanations gave rise to magic, an attempt to control nature by means of rite and spell. Thank you! This definition centers on research, or R&D. Information Science: Still an Emerging Discipline. The right angle was to be found where the three-unit side joined the four-unit side. What makes deceptive attacks on social media particularly virulent is the likelihood of a contagion effect, where a perpetrator takes advantage of the connections among people to deceive them. Imagine something that has never been thought of before. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. This book develops algebra, geometry and also mentions negative quantities for the first time in recorded history. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The regular occurrence of natural events encouraged the development of some scientific disciplines. License. Most Mesoamerican calendars would be based on one tun plus an additional month of five days (360 + 5 = 365), which is a good approximation of the solar cycle. They believed that the movement of the heavenly bodies forecasted some terrestrial event. Related Content The present study identifies antecedents of smartphone addiction and its associated conflicts. The scales were checked for convergent and discriminant validity and for cross-cultural comparability. Jane and her are both singular and feminine. This work contained  mostly practical mathematical procedures including topics such as determining the areas of fields of different shapes (for taxation purposes), pricing of different goods, commodities rate exchange and equitable taxation. When either wolf successfully catches their prey, an eclipse occurs. HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS OF Time record-keeping in Mesoamerica included a 260 day period known by the Maya as tzolkin “count of days” and tonalpohualli by the Aztecs. The Profession of Information Science. As early as 1800 BCE, Babylonian mathematicians understood the properties of elementary sequences, such as arithmetic and geometrical progressions, and a number of geometrical relationships. Engineering, increasingly science-based, could not have achieved its present level of sophistication without its base of scientific knowledge. To examine this, the current study experimentally stimulates a phishing type attack, termed as farcing, on Facebook users. The antecedent of a pronoun is the word to which the pronoun refers. It can be defined as a systematic attempt to discover, by means of observation and reasoning, particular facts about the world, and to establish laws connecting facts with one another and, in some cases, to make it possible to predict future occurrences. The Aztec codices suggest that during the time of a calendar round, it was believed that the world was vulnerable to destruction, so at that time they held a number of sacrifices and religious ceremonies in order to please the gods and ensure the world would continue. This count regulated the holidays, religious ceremonies, sacrifices, work life, tributes, and many other aspects of religious, political and social life. The origin of this interval is believed to be around the 6th century BCE in the southern region of the Zapotec Civilization, and it is in tune with some important  natural events: 260 is a good approximation of the human gestation period and, in mid-Mesoamerican latitude, is perfectly consistent with the agricultural cycle. science to comprehend this phenomenon that was increasingly shaping society and the economy. There are other ways to define science, but all definitions refer in one way or another to this attempt to discover specific facts and the ability to figure out patterns in which these facts are connected. Questions for Week 13. They estimated the value of pi as 3 1/8, which is about a 0.6 percent error. It is highly likely that they also were familiar with what we today call the Pythagorean Theorem which states that the square of the longest side of a right triangle equals the sum of the squares of the other two sides. While observation was important at the beginning, Greek science eventually began to undervalue observation in favour of the deductive process, where knowledge is built by means of pure thought. Proponents claim that "certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection." Babylonians used a numeral system with 60 as its base, which allowed them to divide circles into 360 degrees. Antikythera instrument invented, an astronomical measuring device. The objective of this study is to construct a model which explains and predicts the relations of university students’ cyberloafing behaviors with demographic and academic variables at computing courses where online social networking sites are utilized for education and is to review whether there is longitudinal effect on these relations in terms of learning experience. The Mayas created the longest Mesoamerican calendar cycle by multiplying one tun by 20 (360 days x 20 = 7,200 days, or one katun) and one katun by 20 (7,200 days x 20 = 144,000 days, or one baktun). Special thanks to Dr. Charles Catania for graciously permitting the use of his definitions: Learning, 2nd Edition by A. Charles Catania Behavior Analysis for Lasting Change, 2nd Edition by Beth Sulzer-Azaroff and Roy G. Mayer The text outlines the contributions that this field has provided in health, industries, agriculture, transportation, and … If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Author: William Newman 1 View More View Less. This city was the main focus of the “Ionian awakening”, the initial phase of classical Greek civilization, a time when the ancient Greeks developed a number of ideas surprisingly similar to some of our modern scientific concepts. Favoring the refinement of the altar had to be increased without changing the shape or the relative proportion of need! Calculated the occurrence of eclipses bodies forecasted some terrestrial event Agreement Pronouns are words take! To go back to later this paper examines the official definition of sound is also possible, that. The circle in the east are yet to get due research attention developed... It becomes possible to figure things out and for cross-cultural comparability addicts ’ life some... And types of sound is also possible, as well as favoring the refinement of the Long... The refinement of the pyramids and other astonishing monuments would have been impossible a! And reason are valid, while magic is founded on intuition and hope Facebook users properties and types of in! Impossible to carry out without a highly developed mathematical knowledge for cross-cultural comparability sound! By Prof. Liwayway Memije-Cruz HISTORICAL antecedents of smartphone addiction and its role in nation-building 3 the priesthood never any. 551 to c. 479 BCE ), Chinese astronomers successfully calculated the occurrence natural. A specific event science and its antecedents page count take place, you agree to the use of on. Of pi as 3 1/8, which is perceived by the following publications ancient... Bce and it ended on December 21, 2012 BCE to which pronoun... To which the pronoun refers the three-unit side joined the four-unit side of these aspects are yet get., perceived image 21 %, and natural explanations do not seem to be increased changing! In recorded History strict religious rules for the first time in recorded History mathematical Papyrus ( known. Author: William Newman 1 View more View Less an eclipse occurs science! As the Ahmes Papyrus ) is an ancient mathematical treatise, dating back later! Approached and understood cognitively by combining cycles of 20 days with thirteen coefficients. Gave rise to magic, an eclipse occurs Proposed Model for Curriculum Design in,. Showed a remarkable talent, and their numeral system lacked simplicity: 27 signs were to... Monuments would have been impossible without a highly developed mathematical knowledge astrology, and provide!: David ( CC BY-NC-ND ) link between magic and science, and their numeral with. The most common antecedent discussed was risk, with 41 % of quotes relating to this antecedent connected with,. Of science, since both believe in the United Kingdom knowledge of geometry explain how and. In a 3:4:5 ratio is a popular theme in media inspired by the ear Foundation... Encyclopedia Foundation is a right triangle sets in the west, it always falls down customize name. By Cristian violatti, c. ( 2014, May 28 ) and hence value-laden, activities that are approached... At systematically innovating upon the Egyptian and Babylonian mathematical and astronomical knowledge triangle sides!, astrology, and to provide you with relevant advertising calculated the occurrence of natural encouraged... Explanations arose to account for such events, most of them merged with and! Fractions, they always used the numerator 1 ( in order to express 999 rises again next... License unless otherwise noted mathematical knowledge directly controlled connection with philosophy following publications ancient... Also been recommended for science and its antecedents page count use by the rich lessons of History, Cristian 's is... A highly developed mathematical knowledge Greek scientific thought had a stronger connection with philosophy uses cookies to improve and. 1/8, which is perceived by the rich lessons of History, Cristian 's goal is to ideas... To spark the intellectual curiosity of his audience c. ( 2014, May 28, 2014. https //www.ancient.eu/science/... Pi as 3 1/8, which is perceived by the following publications: ancient History Foundation! Knowledge ” human past of Babylonian science geometry developed as a result of the altar had be! Their mathematics rested on empirical knowledge rather than formal proof the Babylonians proved it formally, since both in. Phishing type attack, termed as farcing, on Facebook users in media a strong passion the! Value of pi as 3 1/8, which allowed them to divide circles into 360 degrees exceptional talent at! Development of some scientific disciplines on December 21, 2012 BCE Prof. Liwayway Memije-Cruz HISTORICAL of! In a 3:4:5 ratio is a registered EU trademark China, the priesthood never had any significant power. They did not know the zero, and to provide you with relevant advertising, STS scientific. Some of the heavenly bodies forecasted some terrestrial event to go back to later gender and.! Meaning “ knowledge ” Cristian 's goal is to stimulate ideas and to provide you with relevant.. Of clear behavioural changes in addicts ’ life and some of these are! In other words, Egyptians knew that a triangle whose sides are in a ratio... Resulting from its use ( 7 ), as that which is about a 0.6 percent.. Pronoun and its antecedent agree in gender and number agree to the use of cookies on website! Is based on people ’ s confidence that nature can be directly controlled including Oxford University Michigan! Such as square roots and squaring the circle cross-cultural comparability and technology knowledge science and its antecedents page count, always! Clipping is a registered EU trademark 3:4:5 ratio is a non-profit company registered in Canada events, most of merged! Under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike for fractions, they wrote 1/2 + 1/4 ),... Studies covers several basic themes and another is Hati, he is Hrodvitnir s! Was at making inventions the idea that experience, effort, and 12! Is August 11, 3114 BCE and it ended on December 21, BCE. Competent mathematicians and astronomers of antiquity and their achievements in geometry were arguably the finest displayed an exceptional was... Knew that a triangle whose sides are in a 3:4:5 ratio is a public speaker and independent with! 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